Holm-Detlev Köhler is Professor of Sociology at the University of Oviedo. He is part of the PROMEBI research group, committed to the promotion of employment and welfare in Europe. Their areas of interest are industrial relations, management and innovation of transnational corporations, as well as local and regional development. He has written numerous publications and articles in prestigious newspapers.
The global economy would be threatened by the emergence of neo-protectionist measures in the First World countries.
After an agreement signed in 2001 with Hugo Chávez, Cuba began exporting professional services (mainly health personnel) to Venezuela, which bought 75% of these services.
Spain and Portugal are two of the countries that hardest hit by the economic crisis in Europe.
To understand the prospects for financial markets in 2019, we need to remember the uncertainty and volatility of 2018.
The sluggishness in Europe is more evident, given our high degree of external openness.